The Complete Studies for guitar (Tecla 105)
NEW PUBLICATION NOVEMBER 2002
The complete introduction.
Mauro Giuliani (1781-1829) was one of the
most brilliant guitarists of his time and a fine composer of music for
the instrument, the principal guitarist in the Vienna of Beethoven and
Schubert. Among his works
are his Studio op. 1 which is a celebrated teaching book for
students, and his famous Esercizio op. 48, a collection of 24
fine pieces. This present
book includes op. 1 and op. 48 and also four other works which bear in
their title the word study or something like it: opp. 51, 98, 100, and
For a brief biography of
Giuliani, for details of his Complete Works which are published
by Tecla, and for other publications, see the Tecla site under Giuliani. Also, a detailed study is
Thomas F. Heckís The Birth of the Classic Guitar and its
cultivation in ViennaÖ (Yale University thesis, 1970).
This book is a companion to
the Complete Studies, Lessons,
and Exercises for guitar of Fernando Sor (TECLA 101). Both books are completely new
editions, prepared afresh straight from the original editions of the
composersí own time. Both
books present strictly the original text without any alterations at
all: no modern fingering, no changes in dynamics, only what the
original texts gave. That way the reader can be certain of having the authentic
What is included
The six collections are of
different kinds. Op. 1 is
carefully thought out and didactic and has remained famous and in
print ever since its first publication. Op. 48 is a set of virtuoso
variations, brilliant and also famous. Opp. 51, 98 and 139 are collections of short pieces, not
too hard, not really distinguishable just because they have the word
study or exercise in their title, from many other pieces which
Giuliani composed. Op.
100 is a special collection, interesting for the different kinds of
pieces which it contains.
You can see the first and
early editions of all the works in the Tecla facsimile edition of the
Complete Works, in 39 volumes.
In this edition, no changes
whatsoever have been introduced to the fingering, and none has been
added, so that if you observe exactly the fingering that is here, you
can get a good idea of what Giuliani intended, or if you wish to
change it, you can easily do so.
Much of the interest lies in the detail, and you can study that
detail here if you wish because no changes have been made here. Of the works in this edition,
Giuliani gave detailed left hand fingering in the modern sense only in
op. 1 parts 1, 2, and 3. In
op. 48 and op. 100 he didnít give left hand finger numbers, but he
did give position numbers, which are often subtle and very precise
indications of how a passage is to be fingered. In op. 1 part 4, and also in
opp. 51 and 98, he gave no fingering at all. (Op. 139 gives detailed
fingering, but it is a late work and I suspect that the fingering may
not be Giulianiís but rather the publisherís.)
It could be argued that I
could have added new and modern fingering to this edition, as some
modern editions do. However,
there are a number of problems with adding new fingering. True, it
makes things easier for players of modest accomplishments in the short
term. But in the longer term it doesnít help you to become
fluent, indeed it may even stand in your way. I think it is much better to
have the actual music without having to look at it through the misty
glass of someone elseís view of how it ought to be fingered.
Also, Giuliani composed the
particular works in this book with his own brilliant technique in
mind, to which fingering was central.
After all, he was the greatest guitar virtuoso of the Vienna of
Beethoven and Schubert, and he wrote most of the pieces in this book
not merely with his own fingering in mind but specifically to give
exercise in his own system of fingering. It therefore seems perverse to
add new fingering, or even to replace Giulianiís own fingering with
The Roman figures I, II,
etc. indicate positions, that is to say they show at which position on
the neck the left hand is to be placed; they do not necessarily mean
that a barrť is to be used, as they might in a modern piece. They have been left as in the
original. They are usually exact and complete but there are a couple
of exceptions, as in no. 1 bar 11 where the hand must shift to the
first position but that is not indicated.
The position figures are
not always placed with precision in the original editions as we would
probably expect them to be today.
For example, if a position figure refers to a group of four
notes, then in the original editions usually the figure will appear
above the first of the four notes but often it will be found above say
the second or third note, where any player can immediately see that it
applies to the whole group. In such cases in this edition I have followed modern
practice and placed them usually above the first note. (Anyone interested can compare
the Tecla facsimile edition with this present edition; see for example
An asterisk on a bass note
means that the note is to be stopped with the left hand thumb, a
technique which today is often used by popular guitarists but
practically never by classical ones. Here it has been left as in the
original. Anyone who
wishes to change it can easily do so, for example in op. 1 Part One
nos. 113 and 114, or in Part Two no. 3 bar 5 or no. 4 bar 1. Sometimes Giulianiís use of
this can be deduced even though it is not indicated, as in op. 1 Part
Four no. 9.
In Giulianiís music,
dynamics are important because he liked to use dynamic contrast a lot. Often, his dynamic indications
as well as his fingering are very precise and interesting, even in the
simplest pieces. For
example, in op. 100 no. 13 the diminuendo signs on the last two notes
of each bar at the beginning help to show precisely how Giuliani
intended them to be played; yet they are omitted in at least one
modern edition. At the
same time, one should be aware that such signs at that time might not
have had precisely the same meaning as they might today, so play with
A dot on a note immediately
following a group of notes joined by a slur probably does not mean
that the note is to be played staccato, only that it is not to be
Obvious errors are
corrected without note. Some
extra accidentals have been added editorially (but only to make the
notation clearer, never to alter the music). The duration of the final
chords of some pieces has been regularized.
All Giulianiís prefaces
etc. are given here in English translation. The original Italian may be
seen in the Tecla facsimile edition of Giulianiís Complete Works.
Finally, it is planned that
much of this music is going to be available electronically directly
online, and also other interesting things. Iím originally a lutenist,
and when I first started playing the guitar and came across
Giulianiís op. 48, it was much easier for me to play it by first
transcribing it into lute tablatureÖ So it is hoped to put op. 48 in
tablature on the Tecla website, also possible recordings, reviews,
etc. For all these, see the
main page for this edition.
The music was engraved by
I would like to express my
thanks to Raymond Burley for reading through the proofs of this
responsibility for the edition, however, rests with me.
Tecla main page.
Copyright 2002 by Tecla Editions. Errors and omissions excepted.